Dysphonia is the medical term for hoarseness or other phonation disorders. There are many different types, including:
- Laryngitis (Acute: viral / bacterial) - (Chronic: smoking / GORD)
- Neoplasm (Premalignant: dysplasia) - (Malignant: Squamous cell carcinoma)
- Trauma (Iatrogenic: surgery / intubation) - (Accidental: blunt / penetrating / thermal)
- Endocrine (Hypothyroidism / hypogonadism)
- Haematological (Amyloidosis)
- Iatrogenic (inhaled corticosteroids)
Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. It causes hoarse voice or the complete loss of the voice because of irritation to the vocal cords. Laryngitis is categorized as acute if it lasts less than a few days. Otherwise it is categorized as chronic, and may last over 3 weeks.
Causes include viral infection, bacterial or fungal infection, inflammation due to overuse of the vocal cords, and excessive coughing, smoking, or alcohol consumption.
Symptoms of laryngitis can vary, depending on the severity and also the cause. The most common, and obvious, symptom is impaired speech, ranging from a raspy hoarseness to the total loss of ability to speak, except at a whisper. Other symptoms can include.